The site of Generalka 2 is located on the colorful beach of Khortitsa island — third biggest river island in the world. The territory of Khortitsa filled with archaeological objects from Stone Age up to the 18th century. The Generalka cavin, that gives the name to the site is located on the west side of the island. On the cavin beaches lies the 18th century burial. Near them — defensive structures of the same time, few meters further — Bronze Age sites.
From the 1999, when the site was discovered, New Archaeologic School studies this unique archaeological complex.
The object “Generalka 2” itself is the multilayered site that belongs to the time of IV—III thousands BC. Both of cultural layers belong to the Yamnaya culture. At the very beginning of the Bronze Age the ritual complex was located there, later here was situated the settlement of Yamnaya culture people — first Indo-European’s in Europe. About 1000 years later here were located barrows of the Srubnaya culture, people, who are the contemporaries of the Trojan wars. Few centuries more — and the Scythian warrior were buried near them.
Only 20 % of the site area was investigated today. However, our archaeologists managed to draw a few different conclusions. First layer of Generalka 2 is represented by the system of the ditches. These ditches are astronomically oriented with the buggles on the North and North-West part of the complex. It was built around the area about 3020—2800 BC. The diameter of the area is approximately 100 m and surrounded by ditches with the postholes and architecture details. There were also located a lot of ritual artifacts — altar stone, human bones (children bones is among them) etc. Ditches is oriented astronomically with the characteristic arcs — semi-rondells — strait to the North and North-West. Based on the artifacts found, we can assume that ditches are the marks of small trenches where small walls or pillars were located. In this case, they can be the part of the fence (palisade); posts also could have the separate meaning. During the excavation of the complex constructions the concentration of the ritual-purposed artifacts were found near this ditches. The same constructions in Europe are described with term causewayed enclosures. They introduce the huge problematics in the archaeology of the Eneolithic and Bronze Age.
Later, when time passed, the site of Generalka was visited again. In this period Yamnaya culture people were settled here. According to the latest researches, they were the first Indo-Europeans in Europe (in summer 2016 Remi Benali from National Geographic visited the site to make a photos of this people culture). They used this area and the remaining’s of construction for the creation of temporary settlement. This time is represented with the expressive ceramics with the cord ornaments and the finger pins.
Generalka 2 is the cradle of our organization. This is surprisingly colorful and comfortable place. Khortitsa island is located in the center of industrial city of Zaporizhzhya. However, granite steeps on the Dnieper banks create the special cosiness, protecting island from the hustle of city and the whole world. Everybody, who visit Generalka agrees, that this area is the right place to live in the Bronze Age and today. Cultural layer here is near the ground surface, excavations are comfortable, also debilitating, as in other expeditions. Unique complex of the site gives us new surprises every year. Sometimes these surprises are sensational enough.
Place pleases us not only a variety of material, but also with the colorful places, unrepeatable atmosphere and a benevolent working collective of the New Archaeological School.
Reportages about our work on Generalka 2 appear quite often, for instance here. Photos from the excavations took shelter in our Gallery. Results of the NAS work on the site were published, for example in this article or here.
25 November 2020
A Complex Rock Art Object in Ukrainian Steppe
A new paper on the rock art of Kamyana Mohyla has been recently published in Rock Art Research Journal. The study has been performed by New Archaeological School.Read ARTICLE
21 September 2018
Lords of the Snakes
Team of Institute of Archaeology of Ukraine, New Archaeological School and the "Kamyana Mohyla National reserve" found two unique objects during the excavation of ancient settlement. Ophidian sculptures made of sandstone is dated approximately 7000 BC. This findings is unique for Ukraine Mesolithic Archaeology.Read ARTICLE
13 September 2018
IFRAO 2018. NAS in Italy
At the end of Archaeological season members of New Archaeological School finally participated international archaeological activity. This year we had presented a paper on the world biggest Congress about Rock Art — IFRAO 2018. This year it was helded in Valcamonica, Northern Italy.Read ARTICLE
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